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Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process.Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex facilitates repair of germ-line DNA.Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria.Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction.However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals.
Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual (donor) is transferred to an other (recipient).
The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic.
Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience.
Disregarding intermediates, the basic distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way in which the genetic material is processed.
Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides. In sexual reproduction, there are special kinds of cells that divide without prior duplication of its genetic material, in a process named meiosis.